Non-Arable Conservation Measures
These are constructed parrallel to contour in areas of gentle slope to conserve in sito moisture and to check velocity of run off.
Number of rows of trenches are dug in hilly areas having steep slopes. Distance between two trenches is kept equal to the length of a trench. Adjacent rows are staggered to reduce the maximum length of runoff for better retention. These trenches check the velocity of runoff as well as conserve in-situ moisture and check soil erosion.
To meet the fuel, fodder, timber requirements of the community and to increase the carrying capacity of the degraded pastures, proper fencing, planting and over seeding of grasses like Dhaman, Sevan, Stylohemeta is done on Govt./Panchayat and Pasture lands. Conservation measures are also adopted to conserve soil and water. Contour furrows/ trenches are excavated on the contours and pits are dug in the trenches for plantation.
Forestry saplings are planted in pasture areas as well as along the drainage lines, to meet timber & fuel requirement of the local community.
Fencing is necessary to protect the production measures and pastures developed on non arable lands. The fencing is designed in such a way that it intercepts runoff and conserves rain water.
Different types of fencing are as under:
DITCH CUM BUND (DCB)
This is most popular method of fencing. A ditch of particular cross section considering the type of the soil is dug around the pasture area. The aim is to prevent cattle from entering the protected area. The soil so excavated is used for construction of a bund. It can be fortified with local species of vegetation.
In this type of fencing, Thor sticks are planted around the pasture area before rainy season.
This method is popular in areas where Thor is locally available. Two rows of Thor fencing along with seeding of Desi Babool & P. Juliflora are more effective and remunerative.
STONE WALL FENCING
Stone wall fencing is done in area where stone is locally available specially in hilly areas. The stone wall is constructed to prevent the cattle from entering the protected area.
VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIP
Plantation is done at the junction of arable and non arable lands to protect the arable land against erosion caused by the runoff from the side of non arable lands.